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Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is believed to be native to Europe. Currently the cultivation of rapeseed is also practiced in the Asian continent, in Canada and in Australia. In Europe, its cultivation has increased in recent years also in relation to the massive use of rapeseed oil for the production of bio-fuels. Rapeseed oil is extracted by means of solvents. When pressed, the seed provides an oil yield that fluctuates between 40 and 60%. The crude oil extracted is dark in color. It has a high content of pigments, phosphatides and other sulfur compounds. After the refining process, the oil is pale yellow in color. According to the regulations in force, the oil must meet the requirements indicated in the following technical data sheet:

Relative density at a 20/20°Cfrom 0,914 to 0,920See A.1.1
Refractive index nD at 40°Cfrom 1,465 to 1,467See A.1.2
Number of iodinefrom 105 to 126See A.1.3
Content in sterols mg / kgfrom 4500 to 11300See A.1.5
Acidity, expressed as oleic acid,%max 0,5See A.1.6
Number of peroxides, meq oxygen / kgmax 7,0See A.1.7
Impurities (petroleum ether)%max 0,05UNI EN ISO 663
Soaps, expressed as sodium oleate, mg / kgmax 10See A.1.8
Metals, mg / kg (**)
ironmax 1,5UNI EN ISO 8294
coppermax 0,1UNI EN ISO 8294
lead (1) max 0,1UNI EN ISO 12193
arsenicmax 0,1See A.2.1
Solvents, mg / kg (***)
hexanemax 1
smell and tasteDelicate flavor characteristic of the oil, free from anomalous or unpleasant odors or tastes
appearanceclear 20°C
colorthe spectrophotometric absorptions, measured on diluted oil with the same volume of hexane, in a 1 cm tray, with reference to normal hexane, must not exceed the values ​​of 0.20 and 0.10 respectively at 420 and 453 nm
Permitted additives and relative limitsAccording to current legislation (2)
Aromatic polycyclic hydrocardidesAccording to CE 333/07 and subsequent amendments
Composition of fatty acids, GLC (capillary),% ISO 5508Composition of sterols, GLC (capillary),% See A.1.4
C12:0 - Lauric Acid§CholesterolND - 0,8
C14:0 - Myristic acidND - 0,2Brassicasterolofrom 5,0 to 13,0
C16:0 - Palmitic acidfrom 2,5 to 7,024-Methylene cholesterol§
C16:1 - Palmitoleic acid *ND - 0,6Campesterolfrom 24,7 to 38,6
C17:0 - Heptadecenoic acidND - 0,3Campestanol§
C17:1 - Heptadecenoic acidND - 0,3Stigmasterolo0,2 to 1,0
C18:0 - Stearic acidfrom 0,8 to 3,0Delta 7 - Campesterol§
C18:1 - Oleic acid *from 51,0 to 70,0Delta 5.23 - Stigmastadienol §
C18:2 - Linoleic acidfrom 15,0 to 30,0Clerosterol§
C18:3 - Linoleic acidfrom 5,0 to 14,0Beta - sitosterolfrom 45,1 to 57,9
C20:0 - Arachic acidfrom 0,2 to 1,2Sitostanol§
C20:1 - Eicosenoic acidfrom 0,1 to 4,3Delta5 - Avenasterolofrom 2,5 to 6,6
C20:2 - Eicosadienoic acidND - 0,1Delta 7.9 (0.11) - Stigmastadienol§
C22:0 - Behenic acidND - 0,6Delta 5.24 - Stigmastadienol§
C22:1 - Erucic acidND - 2,0Delta 7 - StigmastenolND - 1,3
C22:2 - Docosadienoic acidND - 0,1Delta7 - AvenasterolND - 0,8
C24:0 - Lignoceric acidND - 0,3
C24 :1 - Tetracosenoic acidND - 0,4

* Sum of positional isomers which may or may not be separated under the test conditions
** Codex Alimentarius
*** Law Decree n. 64/1993
(1) EC Regulation 466 of 08/03/2001
(2) At the date of publication of this standard, the D.M. n. 209 – 27.2.1996, (Official Gazette no. 96 – 24.4.1996)
§ The components indicated with § and for which no limit value has been set must not be taken into consideration for the purity assessment.
ISO 5508 – Animal and Vegetable fats and oils – Analysis by gaschromatografy of methilesthers of fatty acids
ISO 5509 – Animal and Vegetable fats and oils – Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids
UNI EN ISO 663 – Vegetable and animal oils and fats – Determination of the content of insoluble impurities
UNI EN ISO 8294 – vegetable and animal oils and fats – Determination of the content of copper, iron and nickel. Method for atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace.
UNI EN ISO 12193 – Vegetable and animal oils and fats – Determination of lead content. Method for atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace.

APPENDIX (information)
A.1.1 NGD C18- Determination of the relative density
A.1.2 NGD C31 – Determination of the refractive index
A.1.3 NGD C32- Determination of the iodine number according to Wijs
A.1.4 NGD C71 – Determination of sterol composition by capillary column gas chromatography
A.1.5 NGD C72 – Determination of sterol content by capillary column gas chromatography
A.1.6 NGD C10 – Determination of acidity
A.1.7 NGD C35 – Determination of the number of peroxides
A.1.8 NGD C8 – Determination of soaps
A.2.1 AOAC 963.21 – 1990 Arsenic in food. Kjeldahl Flask Digestion. Final action.
AOAC 952.13- 1990 Arsenic in food. Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. Final action.